analyse-change

 

The use of analytical tools to monitor the progress and the effect of change

Different approaches for evaluation
Approach
Major purpose
Typical focus questions
Likely methodology
Goal-based
Assessing achievement of goals and objectives.
Were the goals achieved? Efficiently?
Were they the right goals?
Comparing baseline and progressdata; finding ways to measure indicators.
Decision-making
Providing information
Is the project effective?
Should it continue?
How might it be modified?
Assessing range ofoptions related to theproject context, inputs,process, and product.
Establishing some kindof decision-making consensus.
Goal-free
Assessing the full range of project effects, intended and unintended.
What are all theoutcomes? What valuedo they have?
Independent determination of needsand standards to judgeproject worth.
Qualitative andquantitative techniquesto uncover anypossible results.
Expert judgement
Use of expertise
How does an outsideprofessional rate thisproject?
Critical review basedon experience, informalsurveying, andsubjective insights.

The INK management model
The INK management model (Stassen, 2006) is a management model that is intended for organizations to carry out a self-evaluation. Allows the organization to measure the maturity and improvements can be identified. The model helps organizations to focus on the areas where improvements are possible and explore their ambitions.

The INK-management-model is a Dutch version of the European version of the EFQM Excellence Model.


The focus
The model makes use of ten areas that determine the success of an organization. A distinction is made ​​between the components and organization results and focus improvement and innovation. The INK management consists of the following areas:
Focus
Explanation
Organisation
Leadership
Leadership’s attitude and behaviour of all people within the organization who have responsibility for guiding, so all directors, managers, team leaders, etc. They have an inspiring and driving force behind the continuous improvement of an organization.
Strategy and policy
What is the mission of the organization, what are its goals and how does the organization to achieve? This area focuses on how an organization by continuously improve an organization can be excellent.
Management of staff
Realising the potential of knowledge and skills within the organization so that an optimal way can be worked on continuous improvement.
Resource management
The way the resources (finances, materials, information, buildings, etc) of the organization are handled. Effort should be made to the available resources as best as possible.
Process management
The ways both internal and external processes are continuously improve.
Results
Customers and partners
Is the customer satisfied with the end result delivered by us and the customer is also happy with the way the end result is achieved? What is being done to satisfy the customer to get / keep?
Employees
To what extent are employees of the organization happy? An important point for disgruntled employees to dis-satisfied customers. What is being done to the staff happy to get / keep?
Society
What does the organization back to society and how that is perceived by society, recycling, childcare, etc.  Its active involvement in society in this area is important.
Board and Funders
This involves both financial and operational results. The organization must wonder to what extent its objectives (financial and operational) manage to generate. The extent to meet the financial expectations of stakeholders?
Benchmarking, comparing results with other companies, is a popular instrument.
Other
Improvement and innovation
This is the feedback loop in the model.


Fundamental characteristics

The five fundamental characteristics as it were the blueprint of an organization and where users of the model are able to reflect are:

  • Inspirational leadership
  • Building trust
  • Collaboration
  • Result
  • Continuous improvement and innovation

Dimensions
To reach a judgment about the quality of the organization the INK management model contains a four-dimensional view. For all five organizational areas as a summary obtained at the level of activity, the process, the organization as a whole and the chain. The four dimensions of micro to macro every time a broadening of the system boundaries.

Inspire, Mobilize, Valuing and Reflecting (IMVR-Circle)

PDCA_IMVR_Circle
Dimension
Explanation
Inspire
Inspire is stimulating the mind, generating new ideas, creating a sense of commitment and challenge.
Mobilization
Mobilizing the use and develop the capacities and qualities of all stakeholders in and around the organization (employees, customers, partners, directors).
Valuation
Valuation means that the leadership in consultation with employees and other stakeholders determine what really is of value in light of its mission and vision.
Reflection
Reflection means taking the time to look back on the results achieved and how that happened. The goal is based on this learning.
 Why using the INK model

By applying the INK model you keep track of your progress and effectiveness of your change. Not only for one area of your organisation but for the complete organisation. After the setting the baseline you get a good idea where the effects of your change must be visible.

Monitoring and measurement techniques to change within an organisation

Process and performance information
Define and implement objectives and performance measures (like KPI or balanced scorecard)

There are 5 key performance objectives by which an operation can be evaluated (Slack, Chambers, & Johnson, 2001):

  1. Quality: doing things right
  2. Speed: doing things fast
  3. Dependability: doing things on time
  4. Flexibility: being able to change what you do
  5. Cost: doing things cheaply

Key performance indicators
To measure our performance we have to define KPIs (key performance indicators) that will help to achieve/reflect the organization’s goals.

The key indicators are agreed upon by the organization and are indicators which can be measured (mandatory).

Key performance indicators usually are long-term considerations for an organization.

Strategies to minimise adverse effects of change

Why do people resist change?
The main reasons why people are resisting towards changes in their environment are:

  • An individuals’ predisposition toward change
  • Surprise and fear of the unknown
  • Climate of mistrust, lack of information
  • Fear of failure
  • Loss of status and/or job security
  • Peer pressure
  • Disruption of cultural traditions and/or group relationships
  • Personality conflicts
  • Lack of tact and/or poor timing
  • Non-reinforcing reward systems,“what’s in it for me” is not made clear
  • Past success, no motivation to change

Overcoming resistance to change
Strategies for overcoming resistance to change are:

  • Education and communication – Usable when there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis
  • Participation and involvement – Usable when the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change and others have considerable power to resist – Facilitation and support
  • Usable when people are resisting because of adjustment problems
  • Negotiation and agreement – Usable when someone will clearly lose out in a change and where that someone has considerable power to resist
  • Manipulation and co-optation – Usable when other tactics will not work or are too expensive
  • Explicit and implicit coercion – Usable when speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power

People are ‘unwilling’ when they need to change a habit. Something that worked for them before doesn’t need any change in their opinion. So to be sure that the wanted change will set you need to overcome the people’s resistance. If you don’t monitor and guide this part of your change process the changes are almost 100% that your change will not set in the organisation and be reversed to the old way of working.

How do you Analise an Organization’s Response to Change?
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Author: Rieco de Jong (All Rights Reserved by the author).
Source: Original text, based upon first hand knowledge and the following bibliography:

· Atkinson, S., Martin, E., & Hinksman, S. (2010). CHAMPS2 – Realising Transformational Change. London: The Stationery Office (TSO).
· Mintzberg, H. (1990). The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises of Strategic Management. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 11 , 171-195.
· Prosci. (2012, June 24). Change Management Learning Center. Retrieved June 24, 2012, from Change Management Learning Center: http://www.change-management.com/
· Rance, S. (2011). ITIL Service Transition (2011 Edition ed.). London: The Stationary Office (TSO).
· Slack, N., Chambers, S., & Johnson, R. (2001). Operations Management (3rd edition ed.). London: FT Prentice-Hall.
· Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon. (2012). Software Engineering Instittue, Carnegie Mellon. Retrieved February 2012, from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/
· Stassen, R. (2006). Handleiding positiebepaling op basis van het INK-managementmodel ‘Ondernemingen’.Zaltbommel: INK.
Image: © de Jong Consultancy
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